Composed in 1941 by Paul Hindemith (1895-1963). Hindemith was a German composer, violist, violinist, teacher and conductor. Notable compositions include his song cycle Das Marienleben (1923) and opera Mathis der Maler (1938). Hindemith's most popular work, both on record and in the concert hall, is probably the Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber, written in 1943.
"A tremendously difficult piano part enriches this sonata, a true duo for keyboard and brass instrument, in which the partners sometimes trade off passages of dominance. The opening Allegro moderato maestoso (among Hindemith's brass chamber works, only this and the Tuba Sonata bear Italian tempo markings) begins with an aggressive statement by the trombone over frantic piano passagework. The second theme pulls back; the trombone line becomes more playful, or at least less aggressive, accompanied by the piano's constant chatter. A very brief, comparatively mellow development gives way to the aggressive material -- but that is suddenly interrupted by the second movement, Allegro grazioso.
In the second movement, the piano introduces a tinkling theme it will proceed to vary, each variation preceded by an unchanging trombone refrain.
The brief Allegro pesante is subtitled "Lied des Raufbolds" (Song of the Ruffians), and consists of two themes: the first theme is somewhat relaxed, the trombone taking long strides; the second theme is somewhat rushed, busily supported by the piano.
Without any significant pause, the concluding Allegro moderato maestoso arrives with ruminating material low in the piano; this material soon becomes a march rhythm for a vigorous trombone theme. The trombone's music remains steadily declamatory over the course of the movement, while the piano part grows increasingly stormy. Both instruments come to terms in a few brief, emphatically final bars."
-- James Reed (All Music)